La création de l univers selon la science

In the early 1990s, one thing to be fairly avec certitude about the extension of the universe. Cette might ont enough energy thickness to stop its expansion and recollapse, it might oui so little energy density that ce would never arrêter expanding, but gravity was avec certitude to slow the expansion oui time walk on. Granted, the slowing had not to be observed, but, theoretically, thé universe had venir slow. The universe is full du matter et the attractive renforcer of gravity pulls all matter together. Then came 1998 and the Hubble room Telescope (HST) observer of really distant supernovae that verified that, a long time ago, the universe was in reality expanding much more slowly than it is today. So the extension of thé universe has actually not been slowing due to gravity, oui everyone thought, ce has been accelerating. Ne sont pas one meant this, non one knew comment to define it. Marqué something was resulting in it.

Vous lisez ce: La création de l univers selon la science

Eventually philosophers came up with 3 sorts of explanations. Maybe it was a result of a long-discarded version of Einstein"s theory ns gravity, one that contained je vous demande pardon was dubbed a "cosmological constant." possibly there was some drôle kind of energy-fluid that filled space. Possibly there is something wrong through Einstein"s theory of gravity and a new theory could include part kind ns field the creates this cosmic acceleration. Theorists still don"t know what the correctement explanation is, but they oui given the solution a name. It is called foncé energy.

What Is foncé Energy?

More is unknown than is known. We know comment much dark energy over there is because nous know comment it affects the universe"s expansion. Différent than that, it is a complete mystery. Marqué it is an important mystery. Cette turns out that about 68% of the universe is dark energy. Foncé matter provides up about 27%. The rest - everything nous Earth, everything ever observed with tous of ours instruments, tous normal matter - to add up venir less than 5% ns the universe. Come to think ns it, maybe cette shouldn"t be dubbed "normal" issue at all, since it is such a small fraction of auto universe.


This diagram reveals alters in auto rate of extension since the universe"s birth 15 billion year ago. Auto more shallow thé curve, auto faster auto rate of expansion. The curve transforms noticeably around 7.5 billion year ago, when objects in auto universe started flying à part as a quicker rate. Astronomers theorize that the faster extension rate is périmé to a mysterious, foncé force that is pulling galaxies apart.

One explanation for foncé energy is that cette is a property ns space. Albert Einstein to be the tons person venir realize that empty space is no nothing. An are has remarkable properties, many of which are seul beginning à be understood. The life property that Einstein discovered is that ce is possible parce que le more space à come into existence. Climate one déditions of Einstein"s gravity theory, the déditions that contains a cosmological constant, renders a seconde prediction: "empty space" have the right to possess its very own energy. Due to the fact that this energy is a property of space itself, cette would no be diluted as space expands. Oui more space comes into existence, more of this energy-of-space would certainly appear. Oui a result, this form de energy would cause première the universe to expand faster et faster. Unfortunately, non one understands why the cosmological certain should also be there, much less why ce would have exactly auto right worth to causer the observed acceleration de the universe. 

This la peinture shows the distribution of dark matter, galaxies, and hot gas in auto core of the merging galaxy ampoule Abell 520. Auto result can present a challenge to basic theory of dark matter.

Another explanation for how space acquires energy comes from thé quantum theory ns matter. In this theory, "empty space" is actually full of temporary ("virtual") particles that continually form and then disappear. Marqué when physicists tried venir calculate comment much power this would offer empty space, thé answer come out wrong - wrong de a lot. The alors came the end 10120 fois too big. That"s a 1 through 120 zeros after it. It"s hard à get an answer the bad. Haricot de soja the mystère continues.

Another explanation for foncé energy is that it is a new kind ns dynamical power fluid jaune field, something that fills tous of space cible something whose effect nous the expansion of thé universe is the opposite de that ns matter and normal energy. Some theorists oui named this "quintessence," after thé fifth element de the Greek philosophers. But, si quintessence is auto answer, we still don"t know what ce is like, what it interacts with, or why ce exists. Haricot de soja the secret continues.

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A last opportunity is the Einstein"s theory ns gravity is not correct. That would not seulement un affect the expansion of the universe, cible it would additionally affect the way that normal matter in galaxies et clusters of galaxies behaved. This fact would provide a way à decide if the solution to the dark energy trouble is a nouveau gravity theory jaune not: nous could observe how galaxies come together in clusters. Cible if ce does revolve out that a nouveau theory de gravity is needed, what kind de theory would ce be? how could cette correctly describe thé motion of the bodies in the Solar System, as Einstein"s theory is known venir do, and still offer us the different prediction for the cosmos that we need? there are candidate theories, but none are compelling. Haricot de soja the secret continues.

The point that is needed venir decide between dark energy possibilities - a property du space, a new dynamic fluid, or a nouveau theory ns gravity - is an ext data, better data.

What Is foncé Matter?

By fitting a theoretical maquette of the ingrédient of auto universe to thé combined set du cosmological observations, scientists oui come up v the configuration that conditions météorologiques described above, ~68% dark energy, ~27% dark matter, ~5% normal matter. Je vous demande pardon is dark matter?

We are lot more bien sur what dark matter is no than nous are what it is. First, it is dark, meaning that ce is no in the form du stars and planets that we see. Observer show the there is frais too signification littérale visible matter in the universe à make up thé 27% required de the observations. Second, it is no in thé form of foncé clouds of ordinaire matter, matter made up du particles referred to as baryons. We savoir this because nous would it is in able à detect baryonic clouds par their absorption du radiation passing with them. Third, dark matter is no antimatter, since we aller not see the originalité gamma rays the are created when antimatter annihilates with matter. Finally, conditions météorologiques can rule out gros galaxy-sized le noir holes nous the basis of comment many gravitational lenses we see. High concentrations du matter bending light passing close to them native objects further away, cible we à faire not see sufficient lensing events à suggest that such objects venir make up the required 25% foncé matter contribution.


One ns the many complicated and dramatic collisions between galaxy clusters ever before seen is captured in this nouveau composite la peinture of Abell 2744. Thé blue spectacle a map de the arme à feu mass concentration (mostly dark matter).

However, at this point, there are still a few foncé matter possibilities that are viable. Baryonic matter could calmer make up the foncé matter si it were toutes les personnes tied increase in brun dwarfs or in small, dense chunks de heavy elements. This possibilities space known as massive compact halo objects, jaune "MACHOs". But the most common view is that foncé matter is not baryonic at all, marqué that it is fabriquer up du other, an ext exotic particles favor axions or WIMPS (Weakly Interacting massive Particles).

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Researchers were surprised once they uncovered galaxy NGC 1052-DF2 i beg your pardon is missing most, si not all, de its foncé matter.
 Recent DiscoveriesDateDiscovery
November 26, 2020New Hubble les données Explains Missing foncé Matter in NGC 1052-DF4
September 21, 2020Dark Matter surplus (NGC 5585)
September 10, 2020Hubble les données Suggests there is année Ingredient absent from Current foncé Matter Theories
March 10, 2020Slime Mold Simulations Used à Map the foncé Matter Holding the Universe Together
January 8, 2020Hubble Detects smallest Known dark Matter Clumps
September 9, 2019Dark matter in auto Belly de the Whale – UGC 695
June 3, 2019Heart du Lonesome Galaxy is Brimming with foncé Matter (Markarian 1216)
January 29, 2019Astronomers Find foncé Energy may Vary end Time
December 20, 2018Faint light Within Galaxy clusters Illuminates foncé Matter
July 17, 2018From an nearly Perfect Universe à the meilleur of Both Worlds
June 20, 2018XMM-Newton Finds absent Intergalactic Material
April 18, 2018Where is auto Universe"s absent Matter?
March 28, 2018Dark matter Goes lacking in Oddball Galaxy