La Construction De La Tour Eiffel

It to be at auto 1889 exposant Universelle, the cétait une date that marked thé 100th anniversary de the français Revolution, the a good competition was introduced in the journaux Officiel.

Vous lisez ce: La construction de la tour eiffel

The tons digging work started conditions météorologiques the 26th January 1887. Nous the 31st march 1889, the Tower had been finished in enregistrer time – 2 years, 2 months and 5 days – and was established ont a veritable technological feat.


Sommaire

d’un première version bien différente La restrictions Durée aux construction enregistrer Le journalistes Émile Goudeau visitant le chantier au début aux 1889 en décrit donc le spectacle. esquive planches de Monsieur Eiffel Extrait ns la "Protestation anti la Tour du M. Eiffel", 1887

Key figures

Design18,038 metallic parts
 5,300 atelier designs
 50 engineers et designers
Construction150 workers in thé Levallois-Perret factory
 Between 150 et 300 workers nous the confinements site
 2,500,000 rivets
 7,300 tonnes du iron
 60 tonnes of paint
 5 lifts
Duration2 years, 2 months and 5 days of construction

 

 

The incarcération schedule

Works kick-off26th January 1887
Start de the pillars" mounting1st July 1887
First floor achievement1st April 1888
Second floor achievement14th august 1888
Top et assembly achievement31st in march 1889

The brouillon of thé Eiffel Tower

The plan to construct a tower 300 metres high was conceived oui part ns preparations for the World"s Fair du 1889.

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Bolting the ensemble of two crossbowmen.(c): collection Tour Eiffel

The wager was venir "study the possibility of erecting année iron tower nous the Champ-de-Mars with a square base, 125 metres across and 300 metres tall". Selected from amongst 107 projects, it was the of avion Eiffel, année entrepreneur, Maurice Koechlin and Emile Nouguier, both engineers, et Stephen Sauvestre, année architect, that was accepted.

Emile Nouguier and Maurice Koechlin, the two chief engineers in Eiffel"s company, had auto idea à la a really tall tower in juin 1884. It was à be designed favor a super pylon with 4 columns du lattice job-related girders, be separated at the établissement and coming ensemble at the top, et joined à each other de more steel girders at regular intervals.

The tower project was a bold développer of this rule up venir a height ns 300 metres - equivalent to auto symbolic la honte of 1000 feet. On September 18 1884 Eiffel registered a patent "for a new configuration permitting the incarcération of steel supports and pylons peut être of exceeding a height of 300 metres".

In order venir make auto project more acceptable to auditeur opinion, Nouguier and Koechlin commissioned the architect Stephen Sauvestre venir work nous the project"s appearance.


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Sauvestre proposed stonework pedestals venir dress auto legs, monumental arches à link auto columns et the tons level, super glass-walled halls nous each level, a bulb-shaped conception for thé top et various différent ornamental features venir decorate thé whole de the structure. In auto end auto project to be simplified, cible certain aspects such as the large cambre at the établissement were retained, which in aller give cette its very characteristic appearance.

The curvature of the uprights is mathematically determined to offer thé most efficace wind resistance possible. Ont Eiffel self explains: "All thé cutting renforcer of auto wind passe into the interior de the leading edge uprights. Lines attracted tangential à each upright through the mission of each tangent at the same height, will always intersect at a lundi point, i m sorry is exactly the alloue through which passe the flow resultant indigenous the action of the wind conditions météorologiques that part de the tower soutien situated above the two point in question. Antérieur à coming together at auto high pinnacle, auto uprights appear venir burst out de the ground, et in a way à be shaped de the action of thé wind".


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The assembly du the supports began nous July 1, 1887 and was perfect twenty-two month later.

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All thé elements were ready in Eiffel’s factory located at Levallois-Perret on the outskirts ns Paris. Each of the 18,000 pieces used venir construct thé Tower were specifically designed et calculated, traced out to année accuracy de a tenth de a millimetre and then put ensemble forming new pieces about five metres each. A team of constructors, who had worked conditions météorologiques the an excellent metal viaduct projects, to be responsible pour the 150 à 300 workers on site assembling this giant erector set.


The rivet workers

All thé metal pieces du the tower are hosted together passant par rivets, a well-refined method of confinements at thé time thé Tower was constructed. tons the piece were assembled in the factory using bolts, later venir be replaced one passant par one v thermally assembled rivets, i beg your pardon contracted during cooling therefore ensuring a very tight fit. A team de four men to be needed parce que le each rivet assembled: one to heat cette up, autre to hold ce in place, a third venir shape the head and a fourth à beat it with a sledgehammer. Only a third de the 2,500,000 rivets provided in the confinements of the Tower were inserted directly on site.

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The uprights rest on concrete foundations set up a couple of metres listed below ground-level nous top de a layer ns compacted gravel. Each corner edge rests nous its own supporting block, applying to it a pressure ns 3 to 4 kilograms revenir square centimetre, et each bloquer is join to thé others de walls.

On the le sien side de the construction, auto builders supplied watertight metal caissons et injected compressed air, soja that they were able to work below auto level ns the water.

 





The tower was assembled utilizing wooden scaffolding et small steam cranes an installed onto thé tower itself.

The assembly de the sapin level to be achieved passant par the use ns twelve short-lived wooden scaffolds, 30 metres high, et four bigger scaffolds du 40 metres each.

"Sand boxes" and hydraulic jacks - changed after use by permanent wedges - allowed auto metal girders to be positioned to an accuracy of one millimetre.

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On December 7, 1887, thé joining de the surtout girders up to the life level to be completed. The pieces were hauled up par steam cranes, which themselves climbed up auto Tower oui they went along using auto runners à be used for the Tower"s lifts.