“When all the civilization is a hopeless jumble,And auto raindrops tumble all around,Heaven opens up a magic lane.When all the clouds darken up thé skyway,There"s a rainbow highway to be found…”

This prelude venir Harold Arlen and Yip Harburg’s ageless ballad, “Over the Rainbow,” unused in “The Wizard du Oz,” is sung by Ally (Stefani joanne Angelina Germanotta, a.k.a. Lady Gaga) near the beginning de Bradley Cooper’s “A étoiles Is Born.” ont she to walk down an alley, encore dressed in sa waitress uniform, the film’s location materializes in big red letters, harkening ago to auto ruby hue du the words as soon as they attach George Cukor’s 1954 version of the film, starring Dorothy herself, Judy Garland. Cooper’s picture is, in fact, thé fifth screen version of thé story, et just might rank second seul to auto indelible Garland vehicle, thanks in ne sont pas small marche to comment it both channels et reinvents miscellaneous elements du Cukor’s masterwork. 

Garland et Gaga to be both 32 as soon as their particular “Star Is Born” films received année October relax in theaters, et the actresses each seek to oui the coveted titular role launch—or in Garland’s case, relaunch—their career as a principale movie star. Yet what now stands oui the crowning achievement of Garland’s legacy ironically marked thé end of sa career ont a marquee surname in Hollywood. The pangs ns longing that characterize sa two many memorable number in cinema, “Over thé Rainbow” and “The homme That obtained Away,” mirror thé loss that she endured throughout her life. Throughout a Q&A at the 1967 Chicago International cinématique Festival, attended passant par Roger Ebert, Cukor noted, “People who aren"t complicated in real tons come through oui pretty bland on the screen. Most great performers room not really happy et well adjusted. Perhaps that"s thé price they pay for being originals.”

According to the illuminating book released critical fall, A star Is Born: Judy Garland and the cinématicien that obtained Away, coauthored de Garland’s daughter, Lorna Luft, along with Jeffrey Vance, the actress connected deeply à the script because of sa own unresolved relationship with elle father, who passed away when elle was a teenager, as well oui the father la honte she discovered in elle husband, Sid Luft, that produced auto film. Garland dram Esther Blodgett, a singer unaware ns her étoiles power until elle is discovered de Norman Maine (James Mason), a well-known cinématique actor with an unslakable thirst pour alcohol. Elle transformation from Blodgett to her studio-assigned persona oui Vicki lärtel is not toutes les personnes that far removed indigenous Garland’s own transition à celebrity, when she cast éteindre the less-appealing name ns Francis Gumm (vaudeville star George Jessel joked that cette sounded choose “Glum”). Just ont the romantique that blossomed between Lester and Maine was doomed à la tragedy périmé to addiction, so was Garland’s marriage à Sid, as he offered into his compulsion for gambling.

Vous lisez ce: Histoire du film a star is born

The package Garland lugged to the project was dubbed in Luft et Vance’s book as “a cassant constitution, dependency nous prescription medication, habits of lateness and volatility, et unmanaged manic depression.” how poignant that auto very symptoms contributing to auto multiple delays the plagued Cukor’s film stemmed directly from a drug regiment enforced passant par MGM head luigi B. Mayer. Believing his nouveau contract joueur to be also overweight, Mayer had actually studio médecins prescribe Garland Benzedrine an unified with a phenobarbital venir suppress sa appetite if doubling elle energy. 

Paved v self-serving intentions, this erratic brick road dirige directly to Garland’s untimely fatality at age 47 ns a barbiturate overdose—whether or not cette was accidental is beside the point. Thé actress’s most well known alleged suicide attempt emerged after MGM suspended sa contract, following auto repeated delays elle caused à la 1950’s “Summer Stock,” avec her top song, “Get Happy,” that caused the studio losing money. Thé “slashed throat” sensationalized passant par the press was année easily remedied couper on sa neck the freed Garland from Mayer’s studio, providing elle with auto necessary space to prepare pour the best work of her career.

It to be Cukor, ns course, who have to be attributed with auto earliest and least well-known iteration of “A étoiles Is Born,” which also happened to be his life significant directorial effort. 1932’s “What Price Hollywood” centers on waitress mary Evans (Constance Bennett, cary Grant’s fellow fantôme in “Topper”), a most determined heroine v a Hollywood-ready name who makes a deliberate impressionnant on drunkard director, max Carey (owl-eyed Lowell Sherman), while playing hard-to-get through Lonny (Neil Hamilton), the boorish homme who lusts after her. It’s interesting comment the Oscar-nominated screenplay, based conditions météorologiques a story by Adela Rogers St. Johns, splits auto father figure et lover later embodied passant par Norman Maine right into two, culminating in Mary’s happy reunion v Lonny after Max’s death. We’re not exactly rooting à la the collègue to be together, because their first daté consisted de Lonny smashing in elle glass door, dragging elle to his house and force-feeding elle caviar. 

William A. Wellman’s unofficial remake from 1937, the life to carry auto title, “A star Is Born,” is an improvement in numerous respects, providing auto outline à la Cukor’s édition released 17 years later. Though Moss Hart rewrote the sapin half du the 1937 screenplay (which oddly deserve the d’oscar for original Story), numerous stretches in auto second act of auto 1954 picture are nearly word-for-word replicas. The easy venir overlook the fact, however, since the peerless actors assembled de Cukor revitalize their lines with newfound life. Une sentimental personality from auto 1937 film who never spectacles up in subsequent exécutions is Esther’s grandmother, who likens auto young woman’s rêves of stardom with auto settlers that conquered auto American wilderness, elevating sa granddaughter’s journey to mythological proportions. In contrast, Cukor’s refaire feels bracingly modern-day in that is visceral portrayal du studio-bred dysphoria, signified at the beginning par the Lynchian buzzing de floodlights and a Scorsese-esque use de epilepsy-inducing flashbulbs. 

Just ont the 1954 “Star Is Born” is meilleur than that 1937 predecessor, Cooper’s 2018 récompenses contender is a superior version of franc Pierson’s 1976 retravailler, recommencez-vous (both to be produced par Jon Peters), certification Barbra Streisand et Kris Kristofferson. This was the sapin picture à take the histoire out de Hollywood and place it in the music industry. Gaga’s ally is as much a nod à Steisand’s Esther Hoffman as she is à Garland’s Blodgett/Lester. Cooper’s pill-popping rock star Jackson Maine speak in a gravely voice evocative du Kristofferson’s troubled rocker john Norman Howard—two heartrending alpha male characters whose eyes well up long before their woman counterparts break down. Streisand sought to break traditional gender roles par having Esther wear men’s suits, make the sapin move by proposing marriage et inject auto previously sexless yarn with franc if compelled eroticism. “I believe there’s a meilleur of both worlds, mixing old et new,” sings Esther, thereby justifying the purpose ns a remake, as does Jackson’s long-suffering sibling, policier (Sam Elliott), when he recalls how his brother thought that music was “essentially 12 note between any kind of octave. 12 notes and the octave repeats. It’s the same histoire told over and over, forever. All any artist can offer thé world is how they check out those 12 notes.”

It’s only appropriate the Gaga is planning to portray Fanny brice in “Funny Girl” on Broadway, since that not seulement un happens to be Streisand’s debut cinématique role—the une that made sa tie through Katharine Hepburn for meilleur Actress—but it also extremely informed Streisand’s approach venir “Star Is Born,” through its similarly bittersweet love story. The définitif long take on Esther’s face oui she performs onstage end in a freeze structure that aims venir burn her côté into auto viewer’s minds, just oui the critical shot ns Cooper’s cinématique does, et the finale ns “Funny Girl,” parce que le that matter. John makes a failed at an early stage attempt at having actually Esther sign up with him onstage, easing elle nerves with thé promise de “Trust me,” however in Cooper’s version, ally goes through with it, allowing elle duet v Jackson venir be the moment they fall in love. 

Like Streisand and Pierson did, Cooper surrounds self in the picture v real industrie figures and close collaborators. During a dialoguées with Oliver Platt after the film’s Chicago premiere, Cooper said cette was inspired by Elia Kazan’s line, “I don’t audio-visuel actors, i take them parce que le a walk around the block.” His se concentrer sur on direction enabled him to deliver his many intuitive puissance to date, if his la coopération with Derek Cianfrance on “The carré Beyond auto Pines” motivated him à utilize immersive longue takes, maintaining the camera onstage during boulot sequences.  

When it comes to auto actual star-making dégalité displayed by the heroines in thé many “Star Is Born” versions, thé degree ns their ability varies conspicuously. We see little of Mary’s ability in “What Price Hollywood,” individuel from elle on-camera performance du “Parlez-moi d’amour,” a more understated precursor venir Ally making her dénormes entrance through “La ailé En Rose.” Yet pour her stade précoce audition, Mary atelier tirelessly at nailing elle scripted bit of business, rehearsing well into the night. All we get in the 1937 Wellman cinématique are a few celebrity impressions delivered by waitress Esther (Janet Gaynor), which are unseen de Norman (Frederic March) at thé party where elle is supposedly discovered. Auto most potent emotionally peaks du Cukor’s remake are abbreviated here, serving oui a blueprint bereft ns the complete picture. 

Whereas Garland du sang along venir prerecorded tracks, ont per studios tradition, Streisand insisted conditions météorologiques singing live, a compétence shared passant par Gaga et Cooper. Quel torpedoes auto dramatic dommage of thé 1976 cinématique is Streisand’s very own ego, i beg your pardon removes any kind of trace of Esther’s vulnerability, leaving elle with ne sont pas tangible arc—she’s basically a étoiles from thé get-go. By stripping herself physically and emotionally of sa pop étoiles persona, Gaga succeeds in making the audience feel a sense ns discovery as soon as Ally procedures into the spotlight. In numerous ways, this puissance is thé fulfillment of Gaga’s very own anthem ns personal empowerment, “Born This Way.”

From auto very beginning, “A star Is Born” carried echoes de Garland, oui if foreshadowing sa eventual film that would top them all. Cukor wanted to habitent Garland ever before since he saw elle sing “Happy Birthday” à Ethel Barrymore at his home, just oui Cooper got thé idea à cast Gaga when he witnessed elle performance du “La brut En Rose” at a charity benefit. The opening scene ns Cukor’s “What Price Hollywood,” wherein Mary flirts with a picture de Clark Gable, is mirrored passant par Garland’s seconde feature cinématique appearance in “Broadway Melody of 1938,” where she sings “You fabriquer Me amour You” to elle own snapshot of Gable (embedded above). 

Clara Blandick, who went conditions météorologiques to get cinematic immortality ont Auntie nom de fille in “The Wizard ns Oz,” plays auto disapproving aunt of Gaynor’s Esther in Wellman’s “Star Is Born,” discouraging her niece from her technicolor rêver in Tinseltown (and when she finally come there, the couleur pop seulement like they à faire in Oz). Three years after donning Dorothy’s pigtails, Garland action in a Lux radio Theatre non-musical opération of “Star Is Born” opposite Walter Pidgeon, and two decades later, would inviter Streisand as a guest on elle television show. When auto 1976 “Star Is Born” was originally pitched par James Taylor and Carly Simon, ce was called “Rainbow Road,” a title echoing the aforementioned prelude to “Over thé Rainbow.”

What provides this story such a valuable une to retell every generation jaune so is that timeless recherche of a dehumanizing entreprises designed to mixte talent, permit addictions et snuff the end those that peut faire endanger its profits. Looked at all together, these five films serve as “evergreen” temps capsules, à borrow auto name du Streisand’s Oscar-winning tune she sings masterfully in une unbroken take while flirting through Kristofferson (Gaga will likely win the same oscar for “Shallow”). Also in 1932, the idea ns a director conférence a woman and wanting to put sa in des photos is dismissed ont “the very same old story.” Wellman’s clever choice venir bookend his film with pages du the le script accentuate the preordained la nature of thé piece. 

Binding toutes les personnes these versions ensemble is a seul line of dialogue that serves ont the older masculine farewell to his young discovery. In “What Price Hollywood,” it is uttered seul once, when max calls out to Mary, only to reply, “I seulement wanted venir hear elle speak again, that’s all.” In auto subsequent remakes, thé line ended up being a request for Norman à take “one much more look” at Esther. This exchange occurs previously in the cinématique so the its shipment toward auto end will oui more emotional heft. In thé 1976 film, thé song, “With une More look at You,” coauthored de Paul Williams, nation homage to this line, intertwining it with John’s signature tune, “Watch closely Now.”

As parce que le the suicide sequence that typically follows this line, ce is tackled more or less identically in thé 1937 and 1954 versions, with norman walking into thé ocean, though Cukor’s cinématique makes it toutes les personnes the much more chilling passant par accompanying his death with Garland’s tender rendition of “It’s a new World.” seul two year after “Singin’ in auto Rain” opened up in theaters, Mason’s self-inflicted death provides a stark comparison with Gene Kelly’s rebellious splashing through puddles, send his refusal venir let the changing conditions—both in thé weather and the film industry—dampen his spirits. In the case of “Star Is Born,” thé tides ns change cannot be combated by our hero, hey can seul be engulfed par them (Mason also references thé Kelly film de claiming he is “fit ont a fiddle et ready parce que le love”). 

Yet the suicide of max in “What Price Hollywood” (embedded above) is even more memorable, preceding auto fatal gunshot with image of thé man’s tons flashing antérieur à his eyes, a brilliant visuellement flourish parce que le 1932. After Kristofferson drives recklessly right into oblivion if listening venir his wife on the radio, Streisand has elle most genuinely emotional scene when she encounters his lifeless body, clinging to it as if cette were encore alive. Cooper’s limply hanging corpse deserve to barely it is in glimpsed through auto window du his garage, et his fate is foreshadowed v equal subtlety after his very sapin performance in thé film, when images of nooses appear conditions météorologiques a panneau daffichage outside auto window ns his limo.

Driving the masculin to his death isn’t seul his addiction, cible the force in his industry et the greater culture that fail à treat him favor a human being being. In 1932, thé scariest antagonist is the public itself, which attacks Mary after sa wedding, tearing at elle clothing with auto zeal de ravenous zombies. Ne sont pas wonder Esther and Norman opted pour a exclusive ceremony in thé 1937 et 1954 versions, much to the chagrin ns Libby, a push agent that emerges as the chief villain ns the story. Cette has everything to gain from Norman’s death, city hall Esther oui the studio’s “hottest piece of property” that must be defended at toutes les personnes costs. His contemptuous therapy of normand is a blatant attempt to périple the damaged homme over thé edge. 

In these two films, thé veil-ripping scene was moved à Norman’s funeral, intensifying auto brutality de the mob’s violation. The 1976 remake splits the villain in two, developing as an assistant (Gary Busey) who shoves drugs into Kristofferson’s nostrils, and a vile DJ (M.G. Kelly), that provokes fights with the rocker, seul to praise him oz his tons has expired. Cooper’s film offers its own spin on the Libby archetype v Ally’s manager, Rez (Rafi Gavron), année insufferable jerk responsible à la Jackson’s final deterioration passant par convincing auto broken addict that hey has no future with his wife. Much funnier is auto pre-Hedda Hopper gossip columnist in “What Price Hollywood” tasked through asking cheerfully invasive questions of Mary and Lonny. When elle requests a image of his sculpted physique, hey offers her his attachment in a jar avant storming out of the pièce (“Has cette gone to comprendre it?” elle asks).

Cukor’s version of “A étoiles is Born” encore proves pas possible to equal generally because du Garland herself, whose performance is one du the greatest ever before committed to celluloid. Whereas auto 1976 and 2018 remakes finish in a cathartic musical number, this film offers ne sont pas such release, making the sense de loss all the more palpable. Aside from her chorale of “It’s a new World,” sexuel off-camera, Vicki Lester’s last souper in the cinématique takes place at the top of the définitif act: Harold Arlen et Ira Gershwin’s “Lose That longue Face.” It’s année exuberantly high-spirited number, through Garland performing in a hairdo resembling that of sa daughter, Liza Minnelli, in later on years. When auto director yells cut, lester retreats to elle makeup trailer et delivers a searing monologue unmatched passant par any sequence in every différent iteration ns the story. 

Still clad in theatrical makeup, Lester’s larger-than-life persona dissolves entirely oui she speak candidly with studio head Oliver (Charles Bickford). “You don’t savoir what that like à watch somebody elle love seul crumble away, peu by bit, day de day, in front du your eyes et stand over there helpless,” lester cries, echoing auto feelings of Garland’s plenty of admirers. “Love isn"t enough for him. Et I"m afraid ns what"s beginning to happen within je because...sometimes I la ruée him. I se presser his promises to stop et then thé watching et waiting venir see cette begin again. I la ruée to aller home to him at night and listen venir his lies. Mien heart walk out à him because cette tries—he does try. Marqué I hâte him pour failing. Et I hâte me, too. I se presser me cause première I"ve failed, too. I have. I don"t à savoir what"s going à happen to us, Oliver. No matter how much you amour somebody...how à faire you live out thé days?”

Laying her soul bare, Garland articulates thé plight du a caregiver and année addict through such raw agony that cette transcends the art form ns acting et registers conditions météorologiques a level the is inescapably real. “Moss Hart understood when cette wrote that sequence that Mama to be both normand Maine et Vicki Lester, that she would be speaking of elle own failures and drug dependency,” writes Luft in elle book. “Mama to be making a movie around addiction, cible the personalities were reversed.” wiping away her tears, leicester hurries out auto door, hits elle mark et belts out the critique lines of “Lose That longue Face,” toutes les personnes the while preserving a beaming expression. Garland’s entire life is encapsulated in this sequence—the limitless days de cheering strangers while harboring personal pain—and ce remains one de the most an effective stretches of cinéma ever conceived. 

It also echoes how Cooper attempted to “capture fame sonically” in his film, cut from loudness à nothingness et back again. Another story native the opération recounted passant par Luft developed during the filming de Lester’s wrecking breakdown. “You really scared the hell out de me,” Cukor exclaimed, à which Garland quipped, “Oh, that’s nothing. Come end to mien house. I aller it every afternoon—but ns only aller it once at home.” This exchange to be later included into Roger allen Ackerman’s excellent 2001 television adaptation of Luft’s memoir, Me and My Shadows, starring Judy Davis in année astonishing performance worthy of Garland herself. The best sequence re-stages sa Carnegie lobby concert, année event Ackerman was present for, where the overture fittingly join “The homme That acquired Away” through “Over auto Rainbow.”

Hollywood’s history de awarding itself would naturally make Cukor’s “A star Is Born” appear to be a shoo-in pour a full-on sweep at the académie Awards. After all, the organization’s very own accolade had constantly been featured prominently in the plot, even ago when cette was referred à as année “Academy medal” in “What Price Hollywood.” Wellman absolutely knew a thing or two about Oscars, considering his 1927 cinématique “Wings” was the tons to win best Picture, if Gaynor was the first performer venir be named meilleur Actress. Had actually Garland won the pardonner for “Star Is Born,” it would’ve served oui the ultimate validation from année industry parce que le which she had sacrificed soja much. After all, as the meilleur Actor winner in the cinématique notes, winning année Oscar “is an ample price for année entire career.” 

It’s one ns the good ironies of Garland’s first that elle could hold année adult-sized Oscar—unlike thé juvenile miniature she to be presented parce que le “Wizard ns Oz”—only after the académie loaned one out à Cukor, oui detailed in the opening credits. Though the 1954 “A star Is Born” earn six oscar nominations, ce was nowhere to be found in multiple an essential categories, namely le meilleur Picture, best Director et Best Screenplay. Not seul did Garland lose venir Grace Kelly pour “The nation Girl” (who additionally played auto wife of an alcoholic actor), but “The homme That gained Away” perdu in the best Original souper category à “Three maïs in a Fountain,” auto forgotten vous ne faites pas Steve vigne gets ridiculed pour singing in “Planes, les trains & Automobiles.” the fact “Star Is Born” left the 1955 oscar ceremony empty-handed registered as a slap in the affronter to Garland, et unlike the one accidentally administered by Norman Maine, it was not at toutes les personnes backhanded.

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The rapturous réagir that the film earned at that splashy los Angeles premiere was a mirage de “La les Land” proportions. It promised je vous demande pardon ultimately couldn’t be delivered, a major comaback fueled by prix season glory. Despite auto acclaim earned par Cukor’s 181-minute version of thé film, Harry warner insisted that thé picture it is in cut de a half-hour, saying that ce was as well long—after all, it was the most high value movie shoot in Hollywood, yet the rerelease of “Gone With auto Wind” was toujours raking in super money at the box office. There is no the consultations of Cukor, chaleureux senselessly chopped the picture down to 154 minutes, rendering the histoire incoherent while removing many de the best scenes, such ont the enregistrement session pour “Here’s quel I’m here For” followed by Norman’s marriage proposal, and most criminal du all, thé “Lose That long Face” number. 

Since chaleureux didn’t bother retaining a simple print of the original cut, Ronald Haver’s 1983 restoration was forced to juxtapose cinématique stills v surviving laudio in order to recreate auto 20 minute of footage that were permanently lost. Though this sequences are originally jarring, they improve the histoire immeasurably, if lending new layers du depth venir Esther et Norman’s relationship. Auto amusing peu where a mrs lashes out at norman after he refuses to réinstallation for a photo is evocative of a similar instants in Scorsese’s “The roi of Comedy,” as soon as one of Jerry Lewis’ disgruntled fans shouts, “I hope you volonté cancer!” Garland never lived to see this enhanced version, having actually passed far in 1969, and Cukor died seul two days prior à his reserved screening du the restoration.

If Cooper’s film proves anything, that that thé story of “A star Is Born” will certainly eternally be precious “one an ext look,” though ne sont pas successful refaire can exist without gift at the very least somewhat indebted à Cukor’s version. Gaga is année ideal choice venir follow in Garland’s footsteps, in aller because both women space icons du the LGBT community. Thé Stonewall uprising that arisen a day after Garland’s funeral in new York city may likely have inspired gilbert Baker à select Dorothy’s cherished rainbow as the defining symbol of his corrébration pride flag. Few singers have ever tackled thé difficulty du living one’s rêves with ont much resonance ont Garland, a template that continues to connect with everyone shamed out ns being through the une they love. 

Garland’s constance, condamnations, jugements to sing “The homme That gained Away” v operatic passion commander vocal arranger Hugh vigne to bolt from the set, marqué she to be entirely exactement in elle choice, knowing totally well the this number foreshadowed thé turbulent emotion she would later provide sans musique in auto makeup trailer. Auto songs in Cooper’s picture conduire the regard just as much as they faire in Cukor’s version, through “La vie En Rose” serving thé same function as “The masculin That acquired Away” by wowing Maine (and the audience) with thé singer’s stunning talent. Once Cooper life meets Gaga backstage and offers to help take off elle false eyebrows, the des moments is an homage to perhaps auto most meaningful scene of all in auto 1954 film.

Ally’s self-consciousness about thé size of elle nose reminds us du the humiliating studios examination endured par Lester, who is notified that sa “nose is the problem.” After elle was hired by MGM, rubber discs were put into Garland’s sleep in order pour it to be reshaped so that elle could be reputed camera-ready. De lart continues à imitate first in the Cukor film, as soon as Maine finds lester post-makeover, caked in makeup et decked the end in a man blonde wig. Cette insists that elle remove tous trace ns artifice from sa features avant gazing at elle reflection in auto mirror. This is auto greatest pitié that Maine bestows to her—the currently that sa beauty shines through only when she’s true à herself. à paraphrase Gaga’s many popular song from auto 2018 film, she’s far from the shallow now. 

Lester goes conditions météorologiques to success over audiences in her first major screen function represented de the “Born in a Trunk” medley, a show-stopping succession similar venir “Broadway Melody” in “Singin’ in auto Rain,” yet tarif more tied à the quartier général narrative. Cette gives Lester et Garland the opportunity venir weave aspects du their very own backstories right into their artistry, proving that the more personal one’s job-related is, the more cette is bound venir connect through others. Gaga believes the Ally doesn’t truly become a étoiles until auto last frame ns the film, after she reclaims sa identity by ceasing to dye her brown hair rouge (her manager originally argued “platinum”). Would Garland ont ever end up being a star had Cukor encouraged her on the “Wizard de Oz” set to faire away with the blonde wig elle was ordered à wear during display tests? Why stroked nerves altering quel was currently sublime? Baby, she was attaché this way. 

Lorna Luft and Jeffrey Vance’s book, A star Is Born: Judy Garland and the film that gained Away, is available parce que le purchase on Amazon, ont is the Blu-ray edition of George Cukor’s revived “A étoiles Is Born.” 

“The Wizard de Oz” revenir to the gros screen courtesy of Fathom Events nous Sunday, January 27th; Tuesday, January 29th; and Wednesday, January 30th in honor of that 80th anniversary.

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Matt Fagerholm

Matt Fagerholm is an Assistant Editor at llywelyn.net and is a member ns the Chicago cinématique Critics Association.