Herbert de Karajan (April 5, 1908 - July 16, 1989) was année Austrian orchestra et opera conductor, one de the most renowned twentieth century conductors, et a principale contributor to auto advancement ns classical musique recordings.

Vous lisez ce: Herbert von karajan anna maria sauest

Karajan organized the position of musique director de the Berlin Philharmonic parce que le 35 years and made countless audio and video recordings v that ensemble. Although his Nazi past led to his gift shunned by prominent Jewish musicians, his career in European musique capitals was however one du the many successful in the annals ns twentieth century timeless music. He also played an important duty bringing credibility à London"s Philharmonia Orchestra in the 1950s.

Karajan is auto top-selling classical musique recording artist of all time, with an estimated 200 million records sold. He was one of the life international timeless musicians to understand the dimportance of the enregistrement industry and eventually created his very own video fabrication company, Telemondial. In addition to American composer/conductor, Leonard Bernstein, karajan is probably thé most recognized name among conductors de the twenty century.


Early years


Karajan was frontière in Salzburg, Austria, the le sien of an upper-bourgeois Salzburg family. A son prodigy at the piano, cette studied at thé Mozarteum in Salzburg native 1916 to 1926, where he eventually came to be interested in conducting.

In 1929, karajan conducted Richard Strauss" opéra Salome at auto Festspielhaus in Salzburg, and from 1929 to 1934, cette served ont first Kapellmeister at auto Stadttheater in Ulm. In 1933, cette conducted à la the sapin time at thé prestigious Salzburg bien sur in max Reinhardt"s opération of Faust. The following year, again in Salzburg, Karajan commander the wien Philharmonic.

In 1935, Karajan"s job was provided a far-reaching boost when he was appointed Germany"s youngest Generalmusikdirektor et was a invité conductor in Bucharest, Brussels, Stockholm, Amsterdam, and Paris. Indigenous 1934 venir 1941 cette also carried out opera and symphony concert at the Aachen opera house. In 1937, karajan made his debut with thé Berlin Philharmonic and the Berlin State opéra with Beethoven"s Fidelio. He enjoyed a diriger success in thé State opéra with Tristan und Isolde in 1938. The puissance was hailed as "the karagan miracle," and led à comparisons with Germany"s most famous conductors. Receiving a contract with Europe"s premiere recoding company, Deutsche grammophon that very same year, karagan made the life of many recordings par conducting thé Staatskapelle Berlin in Mozart"s overture to mourir Zauberflöte.


Karajan endured a diriger embarrassment throughout a 1939 performance ns Wagner"s die Meistersinger, which hey conducted there is no a score. Ont a result of a storage slip, he lost his way, causing thé singers à become confused. The performance halted et the curtain was carried down. Ont a result de this error, adol Hitler determined that karajan was never to conduct at thé annual Bayreuth dur of Wagnerian works. However, oui a favori of Hermann Göring, karajan continued his work as conductor ns the Staatskapelle (1941-1945), thé orchestra du the Berlin State Opera, where he would conduct around 150 opéra performances in total.

In October 1942, at thé height du the war, karajan married his seconde wife, auto daughter of a famous sewing an equipment magnate, Anna maria "Anita" Sauest, émergence Gütermann, who had actually a Jewish grandfather. Passant par 1944, Karajan, a Nazi party member, was shedding favor with the Nazi leaders. However, hey still conducted concerts in wartime Berlin ont late oui February 1945. In the closing stages du the war, karajan relocated his family à Italy v the assistant of Italian conductor Victor de Sabata.

Nazi controversy

Like plenty of musicians in Germany, thé period indigenous 1933 à 1946 was specifically vexatious. Few in thé early part du Hitler"s increase to force envisioned thé atrocities the were à be perpetrated in the name du the Nazi ideology. Avec certitude musicians looked at joining thé party ont a gesture of national pride. Others viewed it as a stepping stone to higher positions and opportunities for meilleur employment. Though some significant musicians (conductor knife Bohm, pour example) to be unapologetic in the their Nazi affiliations, some continued to be agnostic (Wilhelm Furtwangler), et others fled Germany (such oui composer paul Hindemith) out de fear ns retribution à la their criticism du Nazi ideas.

Karajan"s des boites is particularly interesting tandis que to auto fact the there exists deux records de his joining auto party. If the later de the deux enrollments to be correct, cette gives rise venir the conceptions that hey joined thé party knowing of Hitler"s intentions and chose to join pour career advancement. This to be a charger levied at countless German musicians in thé post-war era. Yet there has actually been signification littérale evidence and/or testimonies par those that knew that in auto Nazi years to appui any cases that hey was an actif collaborator in auto Nazi machine beyond careerism. Still, the stigma of his gift a Nazi sympathizer remained a part du his musique life.

Postwar career


Karajan was discharged de the Austrian de-Nazification evaluating board on March 18, 1946, and resumed his conducting career soon thereafter.He soon offered his sapin post-war apparence solo with the Vienna Philharmonic. However, hey was banned from further conducting activities by the Soviet capturer authorities because de his Nazi party membership. The summer, hey participated anonymously in auto Salzburg Festival. Thé following year, cette was allowed venir resume conducting.

Jewish musician such ont Isaac Stern, Arthur Rubinstein, and Itzhak Perlman refused to phat in concert with karagan because du his Nazi past. Tenor Richard Tucker pulled the end from a 1956 enregistrer of cette trovatore when hey learned that karagan would it is in conducting, and threatened to do the same nous the maria Callas recording de Aida, until karajan was replaced par Tullio Serafin.

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In 1949, karajan became creative director du the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, (Society of music Friends) in Vienna. Hey also performed at la Scala in Milan. However, his most prominent activity at this time was recording with auto newly-formed Philharmonia Orchestra in London, helping venir establish the articulations into one de the world"s finest. It was additionally in 1949 that karagan began his lifetime long combinaison with thé Lucerne Festival. In 1951 and 1952, cette was once again invited à conduct at thé Bayreuth Festival.

In 1955, karajan was appointed musique director for tons of thé Berlin Philharmonic ont successor to auto legendary wilhelm Furtwängler. From 1957 à 1964, cette was artistic director ns the wien State Opera. Hey was closely associated with auto Vienna Philharmonic et the Salzburg Festival, where he initiated the annual Easter Festival. Cette continued to perform, conduct and record prolifically, primarily with thé Vienna Philharmonic and the Berlin Philharmonic till his fatality in Anif in 1989. In 1989, nous one de his final American appearances in nouveau York City, Jewish demonstrators protested his figure at Carnegie Hall.

Karjan recorded auto nine symphonies ns Beethoven on four different opportunités during his lifetime. His 1963 account with auto Berlin Philharmonic stay among auto highest selling sets de these seminal works.

Musicianship and style

There is widespread covenant that karagan possessed a distinct gift pour extracting beautiful sounds from année orchestra. Opinion varies concerning the greater aesthetic ends to which The karajan Sound was applied. Some movie critics felt thé highly polished et "creamy" sounds that came to be his trademark walk not work in avec certitude repertory, such ont the classic symphonies ns Mozart and Haydn and contemporary works de Stravinsky and Bartok. However, cette has been said that Karajan"s pre-1970 style did no sound as polished is indicated in his later performances and recordings.

Regarding twenty century music, karagan had a solid preference pour conducting and recording pre-1945 works (such as those de Mahler, Schoenberg, Berg, Webern, Bartók, Sibelius, Richard Strauss, Puccini, Ildebrando Pizzetti, Arthur Honegger, Prokofiev, Debussy, Ravel, paul Hindemith, carl Nielsen, et Stravinsky), but also recorded Shostakovich"s Symphony No. 10 (1953) twice, et premiered voyou Orff"s "De Temporum mince Comoedia" in 1973.



Karajan to be one of the tons international la honte to recognize the importance of the recording industry. He always invest in thé latest state-of-the-art sound systems and made concerted dattaquer to market and protect the ownership de his recordings. This eventually directif to the création of his very own production société (Telemondial) to record, duplicate and market his taped legacy.

He also played année important duty in auto development de the original compacts disc digital sonner format. He championed this nouveau consumer rejouer technology, lent his prestige à it, and appeared at the life press conférence announcing auto format. Ce was commonly reported, though unverified, the the extension of auto CD"s prototype formats of 60 minutes to its critique specification du 74 minute was périmé to Karajan"s insistence that the formats have adequate capacity venir contain Beethoven"s 9th Symphony on a simple disc.

The controversy surrounding his affiliation with adol Hitler et the nazus not withstanding, Herbert von karajan was undoubtedly auto most significant conductor in leurope  in that later on half de the twenty century.

Karajan was the recipient du many honors et awards. On célibataire 21, 1978, he received the Honorary Degree ns Doctor of musique from Oxford University. Hey was honored by the "Médaille de Vermeil" in Paris, the gold Medal de the royaliste Philharmonic culture in London, auto Olympia récompense of auto Onassis foundation in Athens and the UNESCO international Music Prize. Cette received deux Gramophone prix for recordings de Mahler"s ninth Symphony et the complete parsifal recordings in 1981. In 2002, thé Herbert von karajan Music prize was established in his honor.

See also


External links

All links retrieved December 20, 2017.

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